Example sentences for: activation

How can you use “activation” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • The hedgehog ( hh ) gene was identified two decades ago in Drosophila as a critical regulator of cell-fate determination during embryogenesis [ 1 ] . Subsequent work in several model systems has defined and characterized the Hh gene family that encodes highly conserved secreted signaling proteins (for review see [ 2 ] ). Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are synthesized as approximately 45 kDa precursors that autoprocess in an unprecedented fashion, resulting in the covalent attachment of a cholesterol moiety to the amino-terminal half of the precursor [ 2 ] . This processed amino-terminal domain, Hh-Np, is responsible for the activation of a unique and complex signaling cascade that is essential for controlling cell fate throughout development and into adulthood [ 2 ] . In mammals there are three Hh-family proteins: Sonic (Shh), Indian (Ihh), and Desert (Dhh).

  • In contrast, anisomycin (500 ng/ml, 30 min) produced a significant increase in JNK activation (approximately 2-fold above basal).

  • In practical terms, these results suggest that systemic IL-2 administration may facilitate T-cell effector function in the target organ not by sustaining their proliferation, as presently believed, but rather by promoting their migration and by providing a milieu conducive to their activation in situ through activation of antigen-presenting cells.

  • Altered vascular function in older individuals is evidenced as impaired endothelial function [ 8 9 10 ] , an altered ratio of endothelin receptors [ 11 ] , and/or altered reactivity of the smooth muscle to sympathetic activity [ 7 12 ] . Reduced endothelial function is related to impaired formation and decreased activation of nitric oxide [ 13 14 ] and is particularly prominent in older subjects with evidence of cardiovascular disease [ 15 ] , diabetes [ 16 ] , or obesity [ 17 ] . Interestingly, aging does not appear to effect endothelium independent vasodilation [ 10 14 ] .

  • [ 26 ] ). This would also indicate that the pre-pubertal wave of apoptosis is regulated, at least in part, by T. Indeed, it has been reported that experimental reduction in the levels of intra-testicular T leads to the activation of caspase-3 [ 56 ] and thereby to an increase in germ cell apoptosis [ 57 58 ] . The roles of other apoptosis-regulating proteins, such as the Fas/Fas ligand system [ 47 59 60 ] , the Bcl-2 family of proteins [ 61 62 ] , and several "inhibitor of apoptosis" proteins (IAP) are also likely to play a role in germ cell death and survival [ 63 64 65 ] .


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