Example sentences for: phosphorylated

How can you use “phosphorylated” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • The cell surface expressed integrins can control this process by physically interacting with the extracellular matrix proteins and other cell surface proteins on endothelial cells lining the blood vessel wall [ 1 ] . These integrins signal adhesion and migration by communicating with several tyrosine kinases inside the cell, including the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Src family kinases [ 1 2 ] . Src kinases control the activation of FAK, as well as the tyrosine phosphorylation of critical substrates that regulate adhesion and migration [ 3 ] . Indeed, colon cancer cells with high metastatic potential have elevated levels of Src activity or activating mutations in the Src gene [ 4 5 ] . One Src substrate that is involved in regulating an important signaling node in this process is the adaptor protein p130 cas (Cas) [ 6 7 8 9 10 ] . Cas appears to play a central role in the transformation process by several oncogenes including ras, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), v-Src, v-crk, and Bcr-Abl, as these tumors all have elevated levels of tyrosine phosphorylated Cas [ 6 11 12 13 ] . Cells from mice that lack Cas have much reduced migration and are resistant to transformation by v-Src, while expression of Cas anti-sense RNA in cells transformed with ras, v-Src or ODC result in reversion of the transformed phenotype [ 11 14 15 ] . Furthermore, increased expression of Cas can rescue cell migration and adhesion in cells expressing the tumor suppressor PTEN, and can enhance cell migration and adhesion in normal cells, with a major role being played by the substrate domain [ 16 17 ] .

  • To examine if CSC-upregulation of cytokine production involves activation of MAPKs we examined CSC-treated NHBEs for specific phosphorylated species.

  • NHBEs were treated with increasing concentrations of CSC and whole-cell extracts were immunoblotted for phosphorylated IκB.

  • The presence of areas unstained with antibody specific for phosphorylated AKT suggests that additional factors other than Pten may influence the activation of AKT.

  • 3Ashows the results of a western blot of whole-cell extracts from NHBEs exposed to increasing concentrations of CSC and probed for phosphorylated ERK1/2, the activated form of ERK1/2.

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