Example sentences for: osteoclast

How can you use “osteoclast” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • Considering the tremendous morbidity and cost of metabolic bone diseases [ 3 ] , improving our molecular understanding of osteoclast development and function is critical towards the design of therapies to combat these prevalent diseases.

  • The CD98 (4F2, FRP-1) molecule, a cell surface disulfide-linked heterodimer, was originally described as a T cell activation antigen [ 1 ] , and later was shown to provide a co-stimulatory signal for CD3-mediated T-cell activation [ 2 ] , independent of CD28/CD80/CD86 interaction [ 3 ] . In other studies, triggering of human monocyte CD98 could suppress T cell proliferation [ 4 ] , or promote homotypic cell aggregation of monocytes [ 5 ] . Also, CD98 may be a target antigen for natural killer cells [ 6 ] , may mediate fusion of blood monocytes leading to osteoclast formation [ 7 8 ] , and may modulate hematopoietic cell survival and differentiation [ 9 ] .

  • Hematopoietic cells also influence osteogenic cell differentiation, and some evidence suggests that mature lymphocytes influence osteoclast and osteoblast function.

  • With respect to osteoclast formation, IFN-γ is known to potently inhibit RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in both spleen-derived macrophage cultures and bone marrow coculture systems [ 19 20 21 ] . It has also been demonstrated that mice defective in IFN-γ signaling have a more rapid onset of arthritis and bone resorption compared with wild-type mice, suggesting a protective role of IFN-γ in early arthritis [ 21 22 ] .

  • The potency of IFN-γ as a macrophage activator and osteoclast inhibitor suggests a prominent role for T cells and/or NK cells in the regulation of bone resorption, as these cells constitute the major source of IFN-γ [ 18 ] . A link between activated T cells and osteoclast inhibition by IFN-γ has been highlighted in a report by Takayanagi et al ., providing the first in vivo evidence that the immune system may influence osteoclastogenesis [ 38 ] . Interestingly, other groups have demonstrated that activated T cells induce osteoclastogenesis via upregulation of surface RANKL, presenting a dilemma regarding the role of activated T cells in osteoclastogenesis [ 20 40 45 ] .

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