Example sentences for: osteoblasts

How can you use “osteoblasts” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • S. aureus has been shown to be ingested by non-professional phagocytes, such as mouse fibroblasts [ 13 ] , mouse renal cells [ 14 ] , and bovine mammary epithelial cells [ 15 16 ] . S. aureus also has the ability to invade mouse and human osteoblast cell lines [ 17 18 ] , as well as normal mouse and human osteoblasts [ 19 ] . Finally, S. aureus has been shown to invade normal chick osteoblasts both in vitro and in vivo [ 20 21 ] . S. aureus cells were found in approximately 14% of calvarial osteoblasts after subcutaneous injection of chick embryos, and in 11% of calvarial and tibial osteoblasts following intra-allantoic injection.

  • The dominance of IFN-γ over RANKL, which we observed in vitro (1 ng IFN-γ counteracts 200 ng RANKL when simultaneously administered), probably allows this macrophage activation to occur even in the presence of RANKL expressed on circulating, activated T cells [ 20 40 ] . In the bone microenvironment, however, more abundant RANKL produced by osteoblasts/stromal cells may influence certain monocytes to commit to the osteoclast lineage [ 41 42 ] .

  • Osteoblasts were infected with S. aureus at a MOI of 25:1, 75:1, or 250:1 ( S. aureus organisms to osteoblasts).

  • In addition, S. aureus invasion of osteoblasts stimulates the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and colony-stimulating factors [ 19 22 23 ] . These cytokines can potentially exacerbate the bone destruction already characteristic of infection by activation of osteoclasts.

  • TRAIL is also secreted by S. aureus -infected osteoblasts, suggesting that TRAIL could influence cells outside the environment of a localized bacterial infection.

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