Example sentences for: phorbol

How can you use “phorbol” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • Confluent HUVEC were washed with HBSS and incubated for 30 min at 37°C with various agonists in HBSS with 0.35%BSA: HBSS alone; 0.5 % dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); ionophore A23187 1-100 μmol/L; phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) 1 μg/mL; human thrombin receptor activating peptide SFLLRNP (TRAP) 1-50 μmol/L; human thrombin (THR) US FDA standard lot J (Bethesda, MD) 0.1-10 NIH Unit/mL; human tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) 3.5 kU/mL or human angiotensin II (AGTII) 1 μmol/L.

  • PMA, a phorbol ester, activates PKC and has previously been shown to activate SL-1 [ 40 ] . It appears that mesothelin is activated by Wnt-1, which can be mimicked by LiCl, and that SL-1 is activated by Wnt-5a in a beta-catenin-independent manner, which can be mimicked by activating PKC.

  • To further investigate whether the effect of PMA on CD4 and CD8 expression is consistent with the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), we examined structurally distinct phorbol esters that either have or lack the capacity to activate PKC, for their effectiveness to modulate the levels of CD4 and CD8 mRNAs.

  • Virus infectivity can be enhanced by treatment of cells with MAPK stimulators, such as serum and phorbol myristate acetate, as well as by coexpression of constitutively activated Ras, Raf, or MEK in the absence of extracellular stimulation [ 61 ] . Also, following infection, efficient disengagement of the reverse transcription complex from the cell membrane and subsequent nuclear translocation, requires phosphorylation of the reverse transcription complex components by ERK/MAPK; demonstrating a critical regulation of an early step in HIV-1 infection by the host cell MAPK signal transduction pathway [ 62 ] . Therefore, Tat down-regulation of the MAPK pathway in latent cells implies that much of the host signal transductions connected to activation are down-regulated, and at the same time, these cells may be refractory to subsequent infection by other viruses.

  • It is known that during clonal selection in the thymus, immature CD4, CD8 double positive cells develop into single positive CD4 or CD8 cells according to the relative affinity of their TCR to class II or class I molecules respectively [ 5 6 ] . These immature T-cells are selected in the thymic epithelium on the basis of their TCR interaction with either class I or class II MHC molecules [ 7 8 ] , thus generating two mutually exclusive subpopulations that are characterized by the expression of either CD4 or CD8 glycoproteins [ 9 ] . Earlier studies in the murine system have demonstrated that PMA and cAMP can modulate the expression CD4 and CD8 on developing thymocytes [ 10 11 12 13 ] . In keeping with these findings, ex vivo experiments with human thymocytes previously reported by our group, revealed that while phorbol esters can coordinately regulate the transcription of α and β TCR during intrathymic T cell differentiation [ 14 ] , cAMP selectively affected the transcription of the α and δ-TCR [ 15 16 ] . Together the murine data and our own findings support the hypothesis that in humans, TCR expression and CD4, CD8 commitment and selection may be regulated by the same signal-transduction pathways.

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