Example sentences for: std

How can you use “std” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • CAP, cellulose acetate phthalate; STD, sexually transmitted disease; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; mAbs, monoclonal antibodies; FBS, fetal bovine serum; PEG 6000, polyethylene glycol 6000; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; BSA, bovine serum albumin; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; Ch-PBS, chicken serum (10%) in PBS; PBS-BG, 1% BSA/1% gelatin in PBS; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; sCD4, soluble CD4; TS, 0.14 M NaCl, 0.01 M Tris, pH 7.0; CTAP, cellotetraose acetate phthalate; pdb, Protein Data Bank; ED 50 , effective dose for 50 % inhibition.

  • Nepal's National Center for AIDS and STD Control has received support from WHO, UNAIDS, UNDP, and USAID.

  • Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) is a promising microbicide candidate for prevention of infection by sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens, including HIV-1 [ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ] . CAP inactivates HIV-1 and blocks the coreceptor binding site on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120, while leaving the site for the primary cellular receptor CD4 accessible [ 8 9 ] Soluble CD4 (sCD4) was shown to inhibit HIV-1 infection by two mechanisms: reversible blockage of virus binding to receptors, and irreversible inactivation of virus infectivity [ 10 ] . Since CAP and sCD4 bind to distinct domains on the HIV-1 envelope, it was of interest to determine whether or not these two ligands affect virus infectivity synergistically as do other combinations of anti-HIV-1 drugs and sCD4 [ 11 12 ] Binding of sCD4 leads to conformational changes in gp120 [ 13 14 15 16 17 ] . Binding of gp120 to coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5, respectively, triggers additional conformational changes in HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins [ 18 19 ] For these reasons it was of interest to determine whether a) pretreatment of HIV-1 with sCD4 would affect subsequent binding of CAP to virus particles, and b) CAP binding to virus particles in the presence or absence of sCD4 would elicit conformational changes which could affect HIV-1 infectivity.

  • CAP, cellulose acetate phthalate; STD, sexually transmitted disease; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; mAbs, monoclonal antibodies; FBS, fetal bovine serum; PEG 6000, polyethylene glycol 6000; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1; SIV, simian immunodeficiency virus; HSV-1, herpesvirus type 1; HSV-2, herpesvirus type 2; BSA, bovine serum albumin; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; HRP, horse radish peroxidase; sCD4, soluble CD4; TS, 0.14 M NaCl, 0.01 M Tris, pH 7.0; PBL, peripheral blood lymphocytes; CTAP, cellotetraose acetate phthalate; pdb.

  • To avoid this, CAP in micronized form (which does not aggregate at low pH), instead of CAP in soluble form is being considered as a topical microbicide [ 30 31 32 33 34 35 ] . Micronized CAP (Aquateric) was shown to be virucidal against HIV-1, herpesviruses and several nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens [ 30 31 32 33 34 ] . The virucidal activity of micronized CAP could at least partly be explained by its buffering capacity at low pH [ 40 ] since it is a free acid while other anionic polymeric microbicide candidates (except BufferGel, the active ingredient of which is Carbomer 974P [ 27 ] ) are sodium salts.


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