Example sentences for: pi-

How can you use “pi-” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • Restoring PTEN protein or function to reduce PI-3Kinase signaling prevents tumor growth in animal models.

  • Direct inhibition of PI-3Kinase activity may not be feasible either as it is likely to have severe side effects.

  • PTEN is altered or deleted in many human cancers [ 7 8 9 10 ] . In-vitro, cells that are deficient in PTEN show elevated PI-3Kinase signaling [ 11 ] . Reintroduction of PTEN in a variety of cancer cells, including glioma, breast, bladder and ovarian cancer cells, causes G1 arrest, inhibits tumorigenesis, and promotes anoikis [ 12 13 14 ] . Mechanistically, Akt activity is decreased, cell motility is decreased, expression of two cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p27 and p21 is increased, cyclin D1 is down-regulated, Rb phosphorylation is inhibited, and signaling via Grb2/SOS is suppressed [ 11 15 ] . The link between PTEN and cell growth is underscored by genetic experiments in mice.

  • Signaling by the IGF-IR has been studied in many different cell types and is important for proliferation, survival, motility, adhesion, transformation, tumor formation and metastasis [for reviews see refs [ 31 32 ] ]. The receptor can directly phosphorylate the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and Shc proteins in the intact cell causing activation of PI-3Kinase and ras signaling [ 33 ] . More recently, it has been shown that the IGF-IR signals via the Gβγ subunits of the heterotrimeric Gi complex to stimulate PI-3Kinase and ras, and also activates the JAK/Stat pathway to cause phosphorylation of Stat3 [ 34 35 ] .

  • Rad3 is a member of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase related kinase (PIKK) family [ 31 ] . These proteins are large (> 200 kDa) and share a domain related to the catalytic domain of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI-3 kinases).

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