Example sentences for: phosphatidylinositol

How can you use “phosphatidylinositol” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylserine were from Avanti Polar Lipids (Alabaster, AL); phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate were from Calbiochem (San Diego, CA); and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate was from Matreya, Inc. (Pleasant Gap, PA).

  • Spectrin and protein 4.1 form a complex with actin filaments [ 17 26 ] that may be important in signaling in additional to forming a physical link between the cytoskeletal network and the cell membrane [ 27 ] . Furthermore, PI4K activity has been shown to associate with the actin cytoskeleton by biochemical detergent extraction [ 28 ] and is thought to specifically localize with α3β1 integrin [ 29 ] . PI4K catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, an intermediate in multiple phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways which itself can interact with actin binding proteins to regulate microfilament polymerization [ 30 ] . Our work now suggests that the mRNAs of these proteins are all positioned in close association with the actin cytoskeleton to permit efficient localization of their protein products.

  • asbt, apical sodium/bile acid cotransporter; GCA, glycocholic acid; GCDCA, glycochenodeoxycholic acid; HBAB, human bile acid binder; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; TCA, taurocholic acid, TCDCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid

  • Insulin transduces its cellular signal in most cell types via two signaling pathways, i.e., the p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) pathway [ 8 ] . Insulin initially binds to the insulin receptor causing autophosphorylation of the β-subunit of the receptor [ 8 ] . The protein kinase domain of the β-subunit then phosphorylates tyrosine residues in insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, IRS-2, IRS-3, or Shc, which then activates the p44/42 MAPK signaling cascade [ 8 ] . PD98059 is a cell permeable, non-competitive, reversible inhibitor of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK), a protein kinase upstream of p44/42 MAPK [ 9 ] . Tyrosine phosphorylated IRS also activates the PI 3-kinase pathway [ 8 10 ] . There are at least three, well-characterized inhibitors of the PI 3-kinase pathway, i.e., wortmannin, LY294002, and rapamycin [ 11 12 13 ] . Wortmannin and LY294002 block the activation of PI 3-kinase itself [ 11 12 ] , while rapamycin prevents the phosphorylation of a downstream effector in the pathway, p70 S6 kinase [ 13 ] .

  • 24 cells as described previously [ 44 ] . To prepare lipid suspension, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol (1:1) were sonicated in 25 mM 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS; pH 7.0), 1 mM EGTA, 1 mM Na 3 VO 4 . Cell extracts were assayed in 25 mM MOPS (pH 7.5), 5 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM EGTA, 1 mM Na 3 VO 4 , 130 μM ATP, 20 μCi [ 32P]-ATP (3000 Ci/mmol) and 0.2 mg/ml sonicated lipids.

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