Example sentences for: inversions

How can you use “inversions” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • The major difference upon direct examination of the molecular and inversion cladograms in Figure 1was the lack of resolution for inversions compared to DNA sequences.

  • This approach had been pioneered in the classical work of Dobzhansky and Sturtevant who used inversions in Drosophila chromosomes to construct an evolutionary tree [ 12 ] . Subsequently, mathematical methods have been developed to calculate rearrangement distances between genomes, and, using these, phylogenetic trees have been built for certain small genomes, such as plant mitochondria and herpesviruses [ 13 14 ] . These approaches, however, are applicable only to genomes that show significant conservation of global gene order, which is manifestly not the case among prokaryotes [ 15 16 17 ] . Even relatively close species such as, for example, Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae, two species of the γ-subdivision of Proteobacteria, retain very little conservation of gene order beyond the operon level (typically, two-to-four genes in a row), and essentially none is detectable among evolutionarily distant bacteria and archaea [ 15 16 18 ] . Very few operons, primarily those coding for physically interacting subunits of multiprotein complexes such as certain ribosomal proteins or RNA-polymerase subunits, are conserved across a wide range of prokaryotic lineages [ 15 16 ] . On the other hand, pairwise comparisons of even distantly related prokaryotic genomes reveal considerable number of shared (predicted) operons, which creates an opportunity for a meaningful comparative analysis [ 19 ] [ 20 21 ] .

  • In this case, a small (approximately 14 kb) region containing the ftz coding sequence and flanking non-coding DNA is inverted between the Antp and Scr genes relative to D. melanogaster . Maier et al . [ 25] provide hybrization data for a similar rearrangement in the ftz locus of D. hydei , another member of the subgenus Drosophila . It is likely that the other rearrangement breakpoints we observe also result from paracentric inversions, the predominant form of genome rearrangement in Drosophila [ 26].

  • Primarily examined through the use of G-banding cytogenetic techniques, the human and common chimpanzee karyotypes differ by only 10 euchromatic rearrangements: a telomere fusion between PTR chromosomes 12 and 13, resulting in HSA chromosome 2, and 9 pericentric inversions (HSA 1, 4, 5, 9, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18) [ 1 2 ] . The predominance of pericentric inversions between chimps and humans highlights their potential importance in the divergence of human from non-human primate species, and provides an opportunity to investigate the mechanism facilitating these rearrangements.

  • Pericentric inversions are the most common rearrangement differentiating humans and the great ape species at the karyotypic level [ 1 2 ] . In addition, it has been proposed that multiple inversions within a single chromosome could potentially lead to speciation [ 28 ] . The mechanism underlying their origin, however, remains poorly understood.

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