Example sentences for: inversions

How can you use “inversions” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • Primarily examined through the use of G-banding cytogenetic techniques, the human and common chimpanzee karyotypes differ by only 10 euchromatic rearrangements: a telomere fusion between PTR chromosomes 12 and 13, resulting in HSA chromosome 2, and 9 pericentric inversions (HSA 1, 4, 5, 9, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18) [ 1 2 ] . The predominance of pericentric inversions between chimps and humans highlights their potential importance in the divergence of human from non-human primate species, and provides an opportunity to investigate the mechanism facilitating these rearrangements.

  • The first use is as genetic markers [ 1 2 ] in which the chromosomal inversions are considered alleles and are utilized to examine gene flow and other population genetic parameters.

  • The fact that we only found two such events suggests that whereas single inversions are a simple perversion of the normal retrotransposition process such as twin priming, doubly inverted elements require some other extremely rare event to occur.

  • This approach had been pioneered in the classical work of Dobzhansky and Sturtevant who used inversions in Drosophila chromosomes to construct an evolutionary tree [ 12 ] . Subsequently, mathematical methods have been developed to calculate rearrangement distances between genomes, and, using these, phylogenetic trees have been built for certain small genomes, such as plant mitochondria and herpesviruses [ 13 14 ] . These approaches, however, are applicable only to genomes that show significant conservation of global gene order, which is manifestly not the case among prokaryotes [ 15 16 17 ] . Even relatively close species such as, for example, Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae, two species of the γ-subdivision of Proteobacteria, retain very little conservation of gene order beyond the operon level (typically, two-to-four genes in a row), and essentially none is detectable among evolutionarily distant bacteria and archaea [ 15 16 18 ] . Very few operons, primarily those coding for physically interacting subunits of multiprotein complexes such as certain ribosomal proteins or RNA-polymerase subunits, are conserved across a wide range of prokaryotic lineages [ 15 16 ] . On the other hand, pairwise comparisons of even distantly related prokaryotic genomes reveal considerable number of shared (predicted) operons, which creates an opportunity for a meaningful comparative analysis [ 19 ] [ 20 21 ] .

  • Recent studies have characterized several evolutionary breakpoints in common chimpanzee and other great ape species including pericentric inversions and a chromosome translocation [ 7 8 9 ] . We present here a refinement of the breakpoint associated with a previously identified pericentric inversion of the human 15q11-q13 orthologous region in common chimpanzee (XVp) to a region containing multiple segmental duplications [ 1 2 10 ] .

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