Example sentences for: immunosuppressive

How can you use “immunosuppressive” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • We characterized each influenza/ILI episode according to: (1) age at time of influenza/ILI diagnosis; (2) gender; (3) recorded influenza immunization status; (4) prior influenza/ILI episodes during the study period; (5) antiviral influenza treatment (amantadine or rimantadine); (6) total patient health care costs in the three months before influenza/ILI diagnosis); (7) co-morbidities for which health services were received in (a) the 30 days and (b) the year before influenza/ILI diagnosis (chronic lung disease, chronic renal disease, diabetes, malignancies, HIV infections, and chronic heart disease); (8) immunosuppressive and chronic corticosteroid drug use during the year before influenza/ILI diagnosis; (9) health services in the 30 days before influenza/ILI diagnosis for conditions that would have been characterized as complications or manifestations had they occurred during the influenza/ILI episode (see below).

  • For example, tamoxifen resistance in a xenograft model of advanced human breast cancer, was recently shown [ 50] to be associated with an increase in TGF-βs and concomitant immunosuppressive effects on natural killer cells.

  • The selective suppression of Th1 cell activity is believed to be due to IL-10 inhibition of IL-12, a differentiation factor for Th1 cells [ 11 12 ] . The release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates by macrophages is also suppressed by IL-10 [ 13 14 ] . In addition, IL-10 stimulates the production of cytokine inhibitors such as IL-1 receptor antagonist [ 15 ] . In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, IL-10 is produced by synovial membrane cells and is found at high levels in the synovial fluid [ 16 17 ] . It has been shown that suppression of IL-10 production by synovial cells is associated with increased levels of IL-1 and TNF-α, suggesting that IL-10 plays a suppressive role in rheumatoid arthritis joints [ 16 ] . It was also observed that IL-10 directly stimulated proteoglycan synthesis and reversed the cartilage degradation induced by activated mononuclear cells [ 18 ] . These immunosuppressive activities indicate that IL-10 is a potential therapeutic approach for autoimmune diseases.

  • One mechanism by which tumors evade immune destruction is through cytokine production or induction [ 1 ] . Prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2), constitutively produced by many NSCLC has been identified as one factor that has direct immunosuppressive properties and is known to induce IL10 in mononuclear cells [ 2 3 4 5 6 7 ] . IL10 is a dominant immunosuppressive cytokine found in the NSCLC environment known to directly affect T cell-mediated immunity [ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ] . Both PGE-2 and IL10 have been shown to suppress antigen presentation, to suppress cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses, and to inhibit cytokine production by T cells and antigen presenting cells, perhaps most importantly IL12, that plays a central role in initiation and potentiation of cellular immune responses [ 2 3 4 5 6 7 ] , [ 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 ] . We asked whether PGE-2 levels and/or IL10 levels were elevated in plasma of NSCLC patients, whether monocytes from NSCLC patients produce more IL10 than normals, and whether there was correlation within our findings.

  • COX-2 is an inducible enzyme upregulated in inflammatory states [ 20 21 ] . Notably, many NSCLC and what have been characterized as "premalignant" lung lesions have been shown to constitutively express the COX-2 enzyme and produce prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2), the primary product of the COX-2 pathway [ 22 23 24 25 26 ] . Importantly, PGE-2 production by tumor cells has been linked to tumor-induced immunosuppression in NSCLC [ 2 3 4 5 ] . PGE-2 has been shown to directly suppress T cell mediated immunity, the primary effector against tumor cells, at a variety of levels [ 2 3 4 5 6 7 ] . Further, PGE-2 has been shown to induce the IL10 in mononuclear cells [ 4 5 ] . IL10 is a prominent immunosuppressive cytokine that may have a dominant role in preventing innate antitumor responses in the NSCLC environment [ 2 3 4 5 ] , [ 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 ] . Among myriad suppressive effects on T cells and antigen presenting cells, IL10 is known to inhibit IL12 production [ 14 15 16 17 18 ] . IL12 plays a key role in the initiation and potentiation of cellular immune responses and alteration of the IL12 producing function in circulating mononuclear phagocytes may be a critical factor in suppressed T cell immunity to NSCLC [ 27 28 ] .


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