Example sentences for: dilated

How can you use “dilated” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • Dystrophinopathies are X-linked recessive diseases caused by primary dystrophin deficiency, and include: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD), manifesting DMD/BMD carrier females, X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy, isolated quadriceps myopathy, muscle cramps with myoglobinuria and asymptomatic elevation of muscle enzymes [ 1 ] .

  • The furazolidone-induced turkey model is a well characterizedexperimental model of dilated cardiomyopathy with features verysimilar to those found in human heart failure [ 19 20 21 22 ] .Decreased contractile function (reduced fractional shortening ofthe left ventricle) and morphological changes (increased heart volumes,left ventricular dilatation, and myocyte hypertrophy) are characteristic featuresof this model [ 21 22 ] .

  • is expressed in skeletal muscle, with a less abundant ~7 kb transcript expressed in both skeletal and cardiac muscle [ 8 ] . Whereas tropomodulins or the Arp 2/3 complex cap the pointed end of actin filaments, the barbed end can be capped by CapZ, α, β, and γ adducins as well as gelsolin [ 9 10 11 ] . Control of thin filament length is critical for maintaining proper sarcomere function and length [ 12 ] . Inhibition of Tmod1's capping activity - either by using an antibody to its C-terminal end or by decreasing expression using an antisense Tmod1 transcript - results in elongated thin filaments and decreased cardiac contractility [ 13 14 ] . Tmod1 overexpression in rat cardiomyocytes causes shortening of the thin filaments and sarcomere disorganization, resulting in myofibril degeneration [ 14 ] . Likewise, mice overexpressing TMOD1 in the heart show disrupted sarcomere organization with shortened thin filaments, leading to myofibril degeneration and dilated cardiomyopathy [ 15 ] . Recently, Littlefield and colleagues showed that overexpression of GFP-Tmod1 in chick cardiac myocytes results in shortening of thin filaments; the authors proposed that excess Tmod1 decreases the affinity between actin monomers and pointed ends, leading to monomer dissociation and filament shortening [ 42 ] . Mutations in many proteins making up the cardiac sarcomere have been shown to cause cardiac hypertrophy [ 16 17 18 19 ] :mutations in the TPM1 gene, for example, cause type 3 familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CMH3), and a transgenic mouse expressing a CMH3 mutation develops ventricular myocyte disarray and hypertrophy [ 20 ] . Mutations in myosin heavy chain 7 are estimated to account for 40-50% of the cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [ 21 ] .

  • A 45 year-old Caucasian woman with a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, sick sinus syndrome, dilated cardiomyopathy, and fatigue was seen in the University of Chicago's Cardiovascular Genetics Clinic for evaluation and treatment.

  • An additional 98 unrelated subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy were screened by SSCP and DHPLC and found not to carry the 908_909delCT mutation.


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