Example sentences for: anchorage-independent

How can you use “anchorage-independent” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • A characteristic phenotype of tumorigenic cells is their ability to grow anchorage-independently in suspension culture, or embedded in soft agar, without the need for attachment to the surface of a cell culture dish [ 25 26 ] . A flurry of papers has established a close link between anchorage-independent growth and the activity of several components of the cell cycle machinery, such as various cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and the CDK inhibitors p21 Cip1and p27 Kip1 [ 27 28 29 30 31 32 ] . There are indications that PTEN may be involved in these processes as well.

  • These data suggest a correlation between the loss of BRCA1 protein and an increased survival/growth advantage in anchorage-independent conditions.

  • For example, mouse embryonal stem (ES) cells with homozygous deletion of the PTEN gene exhibit increased anchorage-independent growth as compared to normal ES cells [ 12 ] . Similarly, transfer of a wild type PTEN gene into anchorage-independent human glioblastoma cells (which lack functional PTEN), results in their greatly reduced ability to form colonies in soft agar [ 4 5 6 ] . The interpretation of these latter findings, however, is complicated by the strong anti-proliferative effects of PTEN even in monolayer culture, which is consistently observed when the wild type version of this gene is introduced into PTEN-negative tumor cells [ 4 6 7 8 9 10 18 33 ] . Moreover, in human glioma and breast cancer cell lines, the ectopic expression of wild type PTEN leads to anoikis, which is apoptosis initiated by the disruption of cell matrix-interactions [ 23 34 35 36 ] .

  • It should be noted that the fibroblast cells lines we used remain fully viable after detachment and transfer to suspension culture [ 31 43 ] . This is in contrast to most epithelial cells which undergo anoikis, i.e., apoptotic cell death after the disruption of cell-matrix interactions [ 45 ] . It is of interest that some anchorage-independent tumor cells, most of which are of epitheloid origin, become susceptible to anoikis after the introduction of exogenous PTEN [ 23 34 35 36 ] . These observations are in line with the established ability of PTEN to down-regulate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/PKB survival pathway [ 11 46 ] . The absence of anoikis in our two cell lines may reflect inherent cell type specific differences, i.e., the superior ability of fibroblasts to survive under suspension culture conditions.

  • A model to study cell regulatory events during anchorage-independent growth is the culture of cells in suspension, i.e. on HEMA-coated plates that prevent cells from attachment to the matrix of the cell culture dish [ 37 ] . Several studies have employed this approach and characterized the regulation of various cell cycle-regulatory proteins after the transfer of cells to such suspension culture [ 27 28 29 30 31 32 ] . Here, we have used this model to analyze the potential involvement of the tumor suppressor PTEN.

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