Example sentences for: ampa

How can you use “ampa” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • The ionotropic AMPA glutamate receptor GluR4 subunit has been shown to be expressed by activated rat adult microglia

  • The possibility that domoic acid may activate neonatal microglia both in vitro and in vivo is suggested by recent observations with kainic acid, a domoic acid and glutamate analog that can induce upregulation of neonatal microglia scavenger receptor mRNA [ 22 ] and tissue plasminogen activator release [ 23 ] . The putative molecular explanation for these observations has been that kainic acid activates the ionotropic AMPA glutamate GluR4 subunit which has recently been shown to be expressed by activated microglia following transient forebrain ischemia in vivo [ 24 ] . Because this subunit of the AMPA glutamate receptor has affinity for domoic acid [ 25 26 27 ] , we hypothesized that domoic acid might activate neonatal microglia in vitro and lead to concomitant mediator release [ 21 ] .

  • In order to ascertain that under our experimental conditions rat neonatal microglia expressed the GluR4 subunit, we studied the expression of the AMPA receptor GluR4 by immunohistochemistry.

  • AMPA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid; DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; FBS, fetal bovine serum certified; FCC, ferricytochrome c type III; HBSS, Hank's balanced salt solution; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase-9; O 2 -, superoxide; P, penicillin; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; PMA, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate ; RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; S, streptomycin; SOD, superoxide dismutase; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor.

  • Our results clearly confirmed that GluR4 was present in the rat neonatal microglia used in our in vitro studies with domoic acid, demonstrating that the protocol used in our laboratory to isolate microglia did not appear to affect the presence of the AMPA glutamate receptor GluR4 subunits and their colocalization with the CD 11 b/c integrin.


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