Example sentences for: aeromonas

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  • The severity of envenoming depends on the species and length of the snake, the toxicity of the venom and the amount inoculated [ 37 ] . Also important are physical activity after the bite and the physical characteristics of the victim [ 37 ] . The severity of bites from Bothrops laceolatus in Martinique is increased due to the primary bacterial infection from bacteria present in the oral cavity of the snake ( Aeromonas hydrophila , Morganella morganii , Proteus vulgaris and Clostridium species) [ 37 ] . This means that antibiotic treatment is sometimes necessary [ 32 ] .

  • In order to understand the evolutionary affinities and provenance of the CyaB adenylyl cyclase from Aeromonas hydrophila , we carried out database searches using sensitive sequence profile analysis methods.

  • The possibility of lateral transfer of Aeromonas CyaB from an archaeal source has been previously suggested, and is consistent with the enzyme being optimally functional under high temperature [ 16 ] . There are 3 distinct CYTH domains in the euryarchaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans , in addition to the version which groups with the CYTH domains that are found, in single or duplicate copies, in other archaea and eukaryotes.

  • There are over 300 distinct β-lactamases known, and these enzymes have been grouped by a number of classification schemes [ 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ] . For example, Bush has developed a scheme, based on the enzymes' molecular properties, that has four distinct β-lactamase groups [ 10 15 ] . One of the more alarming groups are the Bush group 3 enzymes, which are Zn(II) dependent enzymes that hydrolyze nearly all known β-lactam containing antibiotics and for which there are no or very few known clinical inhibitors [ 9 14 16 17 18 19 ] . The metallo-β-lactamases have been further divided by Bush into subgroups based on amino acid sequence identity: the Ba enzymes share a >23% sequence identity, require 2 Zn(II) ions for full activity, prefer penicillins and cephalosporins as substrates, and are represented by metallo-β-lactamase CcrA from Bacteroides fragilis, the Bb enzymes share a 11% sequence identity with the Ba enzymes, require only 1 Zn(II) ion for full activity, prefer carbapenems as substrates, and are represented by the metallo-β-lactamase imiS from Aeromonas sobria, and the Bc enzymes have only 9 conserved residues with the other metallo-β-lactamases, require 2 Zn(II) ions for activity, contain a different metal binding motif than the other metallo-β-lactamases, prefer penicillins as substrates, and are represented by the metallo-β-lactamase L1 from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia [ 9 ] . A similar grouping scheme (B1, B2, and B3) based on structural properties of the metallo-β-lactamases has recently been offered [ 41 ] . The diversity of the group 3 β-lactamases is best exemplified by the enzymes' vastly differing efficacies towards non-clinical inhibitors; these differences predict that one inhibitor may not inhibit all metallo-β-lactamases [ 18 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 ] . To combat this problem, we are characterizing a metallo-β-lactamase from each of the subgroups in an effort to identify a common structural or mechanistic aspect of the enzymes that can be targeted for the generation of an inhibitor.

  • Experimental analysis on the Methanococcus CyaB homolog revealed no adenylyl cyclase activity comparable to that seen in Aeromonas CyaB [ 16 ] . Likewise, there is no evidence for a widespread presence of the ThTPase activity in the organisms that contain CYTH domain proteins [ 17 ] . Hence, the principal biological function of the CYTH domains may be different from those of the experimentally characterized members of this family.

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