Example sentences for: orthology

How can you use “orthology” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • However, the Pyrococcus analysis yielded five cases where orthology could not be ascertained.

  • (The four annotated genes lacking obvious homology with E. coli genes seem to be either recently lost in E. coli or fast-evolving genes or pseudogenes for which orthology would be difficult to detect (I.

  • Only two of the 560 protein-coding genes that show clear orthology between E. coli and Buchnera would have been removed (due to absence from both Vibrio cholerae and Yersinia pestis ). The two genes ( dnaC and dnaT ) are linked in both Buchnera and E. coli and were retained in the ancestor.

  • Similarly to the issues described in the previous section, the detection of such examples is complicated by the fact that for many cases in which a discrepancy between orthology bootstrap values and sequence similarity exists, all sequences in the Pfam alignment appear to have to same function, the Pfam family is lineage specific, or the annotations are too poor/confusing to make any kind of inference.

  • In order for being counted as exhibiting disagreement between the orthology bootstrap values and sequence similarity a query sequence had to fulfill the following two conditions: (i) it must have a least one ortholog with bootstrap orthology value above or equal to O , and (ii) all sequences in the alignment with bootstrap orthology values above N , must have distance ratios smaller or equal to R for at least one sequence with bootstrap orthology lower or equal to N . Sequences from the following species were ignored in this analysis (since they were the species of the query sequence or related to it): A. thaliana proteome: Rosidae ( A. thaliana, Pisum sativum , Glycine max , Cucurbita maxima , Cucumis sativus , Brassica campestris , Brassica napus , Citrus unshiu , Citrus sinensis , Theobroma cacao , Gossypium hirsutum ); C. elegans proteome: nematodes ( C. elegans , Caenorhabditis briggsae , Haemonchus contortus , Ascaris suum ).


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