Example sentences for: anergy

How can you use “anergy” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • In immature B cells, activation through the BCR induces either a state of unresponsiveness, termed anergy, or death by apoptosis, depending on the physical nature and concentration of the antigen [ 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ] . In some B cell lymphomas, activation through the BCR can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and tumor dormancy in vivo [ 19 26 27 28 ] . The core of the multi-subunit BCR is membrane-bound immunoglobulin (mIg), which is non-covalently associated with two co-receptor molecules, CD79a (Igα) and CD79b (Igβ), products of the mb-1 and B29 genes [ 29 30 ] . The biochemical changes induced by engagement of the BCR are extensive and include an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of several intracellular proteins, hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids, fluxes in the concentration of intracellular free Ca 2+, activation of several serine/threonine kinases including components of the MAP kinase pathway, and changes in the activities of a panel of transcription factors.

  • There is accumulating evidence that, in addition to activation-induced cell death or anergy, T-cell-mediated dominant control of self-reactive T cells represents one mechanism for maintaining immunological tolerance [ 1 2 3 ] . Studies conducted in a number of experimental models have demonstrated the existence of regulatory T-cell subsets that prevent activation of autoreactive T cells.

  • CD28 is also important during T-cell receptor-mediated activation, IL-2 production, and the prevention of anergy [ 24].

  • In induced models of autoimmunity, the CD28-B7 interaction has been shown to regulate disease susceptibility by rendering autoreactive T cells anergic, or alternatively by upregulating the threshold for autoreactive T-cell activation [ 30 ] . Furthermore, we previously showed that impaired Fas-mediated activation-induced cell death (AICD) of autoreactive T-helper-1 cells may be responsible for the development of PGIA [ 20 ] . Therefore, AICD and/or T-cell anergy, but not the CD4 +CD25 +regulatory T cells, may be responsible for deletion or inactivation of autoreactive T cells in autoimmune arthritis.

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