Example sentences for: adenylyl

How can you use “adenylyl” in a sentence? Here are some example sentences to help you improve your vocabulary:

  • For PKA and PKC, the primary signal is generated at the plasma membrane and proceeds through intermediary G-proteins that stimulate adenylyl cyclase [ 1 ] or phospholipases [ 2 ] to generate the second messengers cAMP and diacylglycerol, respectively.

  • Using sensitive sequence profile comparison methods, we show that the CyaB-like adenylyl cyclases are homologs of the soluble mammalian thiamine triphosphatases [ 17 ] , and they define a novel superfamily of enzymes that utilize ATP and other organic phosphates.

  • We have shown that δ-opioids increase the phosphorylation of ERKl/2 in HEK-293 cells when the mouse wild type (WT) δ-OR is stably expressed [ 11 13 ] . The concentrations required to observe DSLET-mediated ERK phosphorylation (EC 50 = 10 nM; Figure 1a) are consistent with those reported for other δ-OR-mediated events, including G protein activation and adenylyl cyclase inhibition [ 16 17 ] . Moreover, no change in total ERK expression was observed, concomitantly, with ERK phosphorylation in any of our experiments (data not shown).

  • Organic phosphate compounds are the central metabolites of all biological systems [ 1 2 ] . Some are the basic building blocks of nucleic acids, some like ATP and GTP, are additionally, cellular energy stores, others like cAMP or cGMP are messengers in signal transduction, and, yet others, such as FAD, NAD, thiamine phosphates and pyridoxal phosphate are cofactors for a range of enzymes [ 1 2 ] . Protein domains belonging to a relatively small set of structural folds are known to bind or catalyze reactions that utilize these organic phosphate compounds (see SCOP database: http://scop.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/scop/) [ 3 4 ] . Several of these folds trace back to some of the earliest phases of the evolution of the protein world, and participate in a wide range of disparate biological functions in extant proteins [ 4 5 ] . Some folds, such as the P-loop fold, the Rossmann fold and the Hsp70-like fold, have been well studied, and comprise mainly of dedicated nucleotide binding or hydrolyzing proteins [ 6 7 8 9 ] . Others, such as the palm-domain, which is found in adenylyl cyclases and various nucleic acid polymerases, belong to more generalized protein folds that contain representatives with diverse biochemical activities [ 4 10 11 ] . Current availability of extensive genome sequence data, allows one to identify less numerous, nevertheless biological important organic phosphate-binding domains that may have previous eluded detection.

  • On the other hand, PGI 2 decreases vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and collagen and glycosaminoglycane synthesis, via activation of adenylyl cyclase and subsequent production of cAMP [ 17 ] . Betaprost, an analog of PGI 2 , decreases procollagen I and III mRNA expression in cardiac fibroblasts [ 18 ] . These effects may counteract the profibrotic effects seen with TXA 2 and it is possible that an alteration of a "normal" physiologic balance between PGI 2 and TXA 2 could increase tendency towards fibrogenesis.

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